12/87 (A Guide to the Design of Interchange)

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Contents

Preface

C14 AT(J) 12-87 A Guide To The Design Of Interchanges.pdf
This Arahan Teknik (Jalan) on "A Guide To The Design Of At-Grade Intersections" replaces "Interim Guide To Junction Design - JKR/J(Rb)0019/82" Which was published in August 1982. It is to be used for the geometric design of all at-grade intersections (whether new or improvements) and is to be used in conjunction with Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8/86- "A Guide To Geometric Design Of Roads", Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13/87 - "A Guide To Traffic Signal Design" and other relevant Arahan Tekniks.
While the geometric standards indicated in this Arahan Teknik is to be followed at all times, it is recognised that in some instances, due to site constraints or otherwise, the required standards may not be attainable exoept at a prohibitive cost. In such instances, the engineer/consultant should refer to his superior/client for a final deoision, although the concepts of safety and design expressed in this Arahan Teknik (Jalan) should always be maintained.
The engineer is encouraged to study the various references as indicated in the Appendix to fully understand some of the concepts and approaches adopted in this Arahan Teknik (Jalan).
This Arahan Teknik (Jalan) will be updated from time to time and in this respect any feedback from users will be most welcome. Any comments should be sent to Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR.


Contents

CHAPTER 1 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES

  • Traffic and Operation
  • Site Conditions
  • Type of Highway and Intersecting
  • Facility
  • Safety
  • Stage Development
  • Economic Factors

CHAPTER 2 : WARRANTS FOR GRADE SEPARATION AND INTERCHANGES

  • Design Designation
  • Elimination of Bottlenecks or Spot
  • Congestion
  • Elimination of Hazards
  • Site Topography
  • Road User Benefits
  • Traffic Volume Warrant
  • Other Warrants
  • Justification For Class of Road

CHAPTER 3 : GRADE SEPARATION STRUCTURES

  • Types of Separation Structures
  • Overpass Versus Underpass
  • Cross-Section of Structures
  • Grade Separation Without Ramps

CHAPTER 4 : INTERCHANGE TYPES

  • Three Leg Design
  • Four Leg Design
  • Directional and Semi Directional Design
  • Rotary Design
  • Combination Interchanges

CHAPTER 5 : GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

  • Interchange Type Determination
  • Approaches to the Structures
  • Interchange Spacings
  • Uniformity of Interchange Patterns
  • Route Continuity
  • Signing and Markings
  • Basic Number of Lanes
  • Coordination of Lane Balance / Basic Number of Lanes
  • Auxiliary Lanes
  • Lane Reduction


CHAPTER 6 : DESIGN ELEMENTS

  • Weaving Sections
  • Collector-Distributor Roads
  • Exits
  • Ramps


CHAPTER 7 : INTERCHANGE CAPACITY

  • General
  • Ramp Terminals
  • Weaving Sect ion


CHAPTER 8 : INTERCHANGE SIGNING

  • General
  • Types of Interchange Signing


CHAPTER 9 : OTHER DESIGN FEATURES

  • Testing For Ease Of Operation
  • Grading, Aesthetics And Landscape Development
  • Alignment Design
  • Treatment Of Pedestrian Traffic
  • Lighting
  • Drainage
  • Public Utilities


APPENDlX

  • Appendix A Procedures for the Design of Interchange
  • Appendix B List of References

FIGURES

  • Three-Leg Interchanges with Simple Structures
  • Three-Leg Interchanges with Multiple Structures
  • Four-Leg Interchanges, Ramps in One Quadrant
  • Diamond Interchanges, Conventional Arrangement
  • Split Diamond Interchanges
  • Diamond Interchanges With Additional Structures
  • Cloverleaf Interchanges
  • Partial Cloverleaf Ramp Arrangements
  • Semi-Direct Interchanges
  • Full Directional Interchanges
  • Rotary Interchanges
  • Adaptability of Interchanges on Expressways as Related to Type of Interchanges Facility
  • Pattern of Exists
  • Route Continuity
  • Examples of Lane Balance
  • Coordination of Lane Balance and Basic No. of Lanes
  • Alternatives in Dropping Auxiliary Lanes
  • Application of Auxiliary Lanes After Exists and in Advance of Exists
  • General Types of Ramps
  • Ramp Shapes
  • Development of Superelevation at Free
  • Flow Ramp Terrni nals
  • Typical Gore Details
  • Ramp Terminal Spacing
  • Single Lane Entrance Ramps
  • Single Lane Exit Ramps
  • Parallel Type Ramp Terminals on Curves
  • Typical Two Lane Entrance Ramps
  • Typical Two Lane Exit Ramps
  • Examples of Major Forks
  • Examples of Branch Connections
  • Formation of a Weaving Section
  • Length of Weaving Section
  • Type A Weaving Areas
  • Type B Weaving Areas
  • Type C Weaving Areas
  • Typical Signing Requirements of Diamond Interchange
  • Typical Signing Requirements of Cloverleaf Interchange
  • Flow Chart of Procedures for Design of Interchanges


TABLES

  • Selection of Intersection Type
  • Desirable Lowest Design Elements of Through Highways at Interchange Area
  • Guide Value for Ramp Design Speeds
  • Allowable Maximum Ascending Gradient
  • Minimum Vertical Curve Lengths in K-value
  • Superelevation Rates For Curves
  • Rate of Change and Pavement Edge Elevation
  • Algebraic Difference in Cross Slope
  • Minimum Length of Taper Beyond an Offset Nose
  • Ramp Pavement Widths
  • Traffic Conditions For Ramp Design
  • Minimum Acceleration Lengths For Entrance Terminals
  • Ratio of Length of Speed Change Lanes on Grade to Length on Level Acceleration or Deceleration Lane
  • Minimum Deceleration Lengths For Exit Terminals