Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders of Motorcyclists, National Symposium on Advancements in Ergonomics and Safety (ERGOSYM2009), Perlis, Malaysia, 1-2 December 2009)

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A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among non-occupational motorcyclists (NMCs) and occupational motorcyclists (OMCs).


By using self-administered questionnaires, information pertaining health history, work environment and demographic profiles were obtained from 884 respondents; NMCs (N=560) and OMCs (N=324) including mail deliveries (N=189), dispatch boy (N=53) and traffic enforcement officers (N=82). There was significant difference in mean body mass index (BMI), daily riding time, daily mileage, monthly riding time and posture score between the two groups with OMCs reported higher mean values. The most commonly affected body regions (>50%) among the motorcyclists for the past 7 days and 12 months prior to the study were lower back, neck, shoulder, upper back and hips/thighs/buttocks. Low back pain (LBP) was the most reported symptom with a 12-month prevalence whereby OMCs denoted a higher prevalence of 82.3% as compared with NMCs (62.8%). In addition to that, OMCs experienced higher frequencies and longer duration of LBP together with a higher percentage of absenteeism from work due to LBP. After adjusting for the effects of demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, we found that riding time, posture score, smoking status and past accident were the major factors significantly associated with higher LBP prevalence in motorcyclists.


A high prevalence of MSDs in motorcyclists was found particularly among OMCs. The prevalence of LBP among the motorcyclists in this study is comparable and for some cases, is higher to that of other studies carried out on drivers.


musculoskeletal disorders, motorcyclists, occupational, low back pain, questionnaire

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